Updates from April, 2009 Toggle Comment Threads | Kekunci Pintas

  • amkksAdmin 11:43 PM on April 22, 2009 Pautan Kekal |  































    Apakah proses liberalisasi ini akan menguntungkan negara dalam jangka masa panjang ?. Apakah kita sudah bersedia dan menerima orang asing dalam sektor ini. Apakah kita juga sudah tidak mampu untuk maju dalam sektor ini. Bagaimana pula dengan nasib rakyat negara ini kelak. Apakah juga ini satu pintu kepada penjajahan asing ?…

    AMK KS

  • amkksAdmin 10:57 PM on April 22, 2009 Pautan Kekal |  


    WASHINGTON – The world economy is likely to shrink this year for the first time in six decades.

    The International Monetary Fund projected the 1.3 percent drop in a dour forecast released Wednesday. That could leave at least 10 million more people around the world jobless, some private economists said.

    “By any measure, this downturn represents by far the deepest global recession since the Great Depression,” the IMF said in its latest World Economic Outlook. “All corners of the globe are being affected.”

    The new forecast of a decline in global economic activity for 2009 is much weaker than the 0.5 percent growth the IMF had estimated in January.

    Big factors in the gloomier outlook: It’s expected to take longer than previously thought to stabilize world financial markets and get credit flowing freely again to consumers and businesses. Doing so will be necessary to lift the U.S., and the global economy, out of recession.

    The report comes in advance of Friday’s meetings between the United States and other major economic powers, and weekend sessions of the IMF and World Bank. The talks will seek to flesh out the commitments made at a G-20 leaders summit in London last month, when President Barack Obama and the others pledged to boost financial support for the IMF and other international lending institutionsby $1.1 trillion.

    The IMF’s outlook for the U.S. is bleaker than for the world as a whole: It predicts the U.S. economy will shrink 2.8 percent this year. That would mark the biggest such decline since 1946.

    Among the major industrialized nations studied, Japan is expected to suffer the sharpest contraction this year: 6.2 percent. Russia’s economy would shrink 6 percent, Germany 5.6 percent and Britain 4.1 percent.Mexico‘s economic activity would contract 3.7 percent and Canada’s 2.5 percent.

    Global powerhouse China, meanwhile, is expected to see its growth slow to 6.5 percent this year. India’s growth is likely to slow to 4.5 percent.

    With the projected downward slide in economic activity, unemployment will rise broadly.

    The jobless rate in the United States is expected to average 8.9 percent this year and climb to 10.1 percent next year, the IMF said.

    In Germany, the jobless rate is expected to average 9 percent this year and 10.8 percent next year. Britain’s unemployment rate is projected to rise to 7.4 percent this year and to 9.2 percent next year.

    Brian Bethune, economist at IHS Global Insight, estimates that at least 10 million jobs could be lost this year, mostly in the United States and Europe, because of sinking global economic activity.

    He and other economists said the 1.3 percent projected decline would be the first in roughly 60 years. In a report issued in mid-March, the IMF predicted global activity would contract this year “for the first time in 60 years,” though it didn’t offer a precise estimate then.

    Next year, the IMF predicts the world economy will grow again — but just 1.9 percent. It said this would be consistent with its findings that economic recoveries after financial crises “are significantly slower” than ordinary recoveries typically are.

    All those factors tend to weigh against prospects “for a speedy turnaround,” the IMF said.

    In 2010, the IMF predicts the U.S. economy will be flat, neither shrinking nor growing. Germany’s and Britain’s economies, meanwhile, will shrink less — by 1 percent and 0.4 percent respectively — it estimates.

    Others countries, such as JapanRussia, Canada and Mexico are projected to grow again. And China andIndia should pick up speed.

    The financial crisis erupted in the United States in August 2007 and spread around the globe. The crisis entered a tumultuous new phase last fall, shaking confidence in global financial institutions and markets. Total worldwide losses from the financial crisis from 2007 to 2010 could reach nearly $4.1 trillion, the IMF estimated in a separate report Tuesday.

    The crisis has led to bank failures, wiped out Lehman Brothers and forced other big institutions, like insurance giant American International Group, to be bailed out by U.S. taxpayers.

    And it’s triggered radical government interventions — such as the United States’ $700 billion financial bailout program and the Federal Reserve‘s $1.2 trillion effort to lower interest rates and spur spending.

    Actions by the United States and government in other countries have helped ease the crisis in some ways. But markets are still not operating normally.

    The 185-nation IMF, headquartered in Washington, is the globe’s economic rescue squad, providing emergency loans to countries facing financial troubles. It has urged countries to take bolder actions to bolster banks.

    The IMF also has pushed countries to work more closely together. It favors coordinating fiscal stimulus efforts through tax reductions or greater government spending to stimulate the appetites of consumers and businesses. And it warned countries to resist the temptation of enacting protectionist trade measures.

    Bold policy actions could set off a mutually reinforcing “relief rally” in financial markets and a revival in consumer and business confidence, the IMF said. But it remains concerned that these policies won’t be enough to break the vicious cycle whereby deteriorating financial institutions feed, in turn, weaker economic conditions.

    “The problem is that the longer the downturn continues to deepen, the slimmer the chances that such a strong rebound will occur, as pessimism about the outlook becomes entrenched and balance sheets are damaged further,” the IMF said in the report Wednesday.

    With the global economy stuck in a recession, the risks of a dangerous bout of deflation — a prolonged decline in prices that can worsen the economy — has risen. The IMF cited a “moderate” risk of deflation in the United States and in the 16 countries that use the euro. It saw a “significant likelihood of deeper price deflation” in Japan.

    Di petik daripada AP.


    Jangkaan ekonomi dunia yang memguncup untuk tahun ini dan tahun hadapan perlu diberi perhatian. Justeru pelan pemulihan ekonomi dunia perlu melaksanakan pembaruan dan reformasi. Sistem ekonomi Islam yang bersifat memberikan keadilan dan kebajikan kepada semua pihak tanpa mengira bangsa dan sempadan perlu dilaksanakan. Jelas ekonomi kapitalis akhirnya menuju jalan suram dan ke pengakhirannya. Sistem kewangan berasaskan dinar perlu dikembalikan agar sistem kewangan dunia kembali stabil.captphoto_1240320150448-1-0

    Mohd Ezli Mashut

  • amkksAdmin 6:58 PM on April 22, 2009 Pautan Kekal |  



    Oleh : Mohd Ezli Mashut

    Ketua Penerangan Angkatan Muda Keadilan Selangor

    Email :ezli007@hotmail.com / No Tel : 017-6543974

                Laman interaksi Facebook merupakan sebuah laman interaksi sosial yang paling pantas berkembang di dunia. Malahan ianya kini menjadi satu laman yang paling pantas dalam mengembangkan dan menghubungkan interaksi sosial di Malaysia. Para penggunanya yang majoriti kalangan generasi baru seolah-olah menjadi trend terbaru masa kini.


                Facebook dilancarkan pada 04hb Februari 2004, Ianya dipunyai oleh Facebook Inc yang dipunyai oleh Mark Zuckerberg. Siapakah Mark Zuckerberg ini ?. Saya tinggalkan persoalan ini kepada anda semua. Namun dalam hal ini kita perlu bijak menggunakan hasil kepakaran yang ada untuk kita gunakan dan raih faedahnya.


                Tahukah anda, kita boleh bertemu rakan yang bertahun-tahun hilang komunikasi atau lost contact. Saya sendiri dapat merasakan perasaan ini kerana dapat mengumpulkan kembali jaringan rakan-rakan saya di sekolah,universiti dan juga meluaskan jaringan kenalan baru kita.


                Kelebihan menggunakan Facebook ini ialah kita boleh membuat sebarang status pengumuman di bahagian Wall. Malahan ianya juga boleh membantu kita menjadi sebuah laman web persendirian. Kita juga boleh ‘chat’ kepada rakan-rakan ‘online’ kita yang telah menerima kita sebagai rakan Facebook ini.


                Justeru, saya ingin menyarankan agar semua Ahli AMK Selangor khususnya mendaftarkan diri dan memulakan proses interaksi menggunakannya. Malahan jika anda mempunyai IPhone. Facebook boleh dilayari dan membuat sebarang kemaskini yang pantas dan terkini.


                Sehingga kini antara yang sudah menggunakan Facebook ini antaranya, Dato’ Seri Anwar Ibrahim, YB Nurul Izzah, YB Tian Chua, YB Mohammad Nizar Jamaluddin,YB Azmin, Ketua AMK Malaysia Syamsul Iskandar, YB Yusmadi dan ramai lagi kalangan pimpinan dan ahli sendiri.


                Menyedari kepentingan dalam usaha memperkukuhkan jaringan penerangan dan komunikasi Angkatan Muda Keadilan Selangor. Adalah disaran semua pimpinan menyertai Facebook ini. Kita perlu jadikan ia salah satu jaringan komunikasi penting kita dalam menyampaikan sebarang maklumat yang pantas dan tepat.


                Saya menggalakkan penggunaan Facebook ini kerana kita juga boleh membina dan membuat jaringan interaksi antara semua pimpinan AMK. Malahan kepada semua ketua-ketua Penerangan AMK  Bahagian di Selangor. Saya mengesorkan semua ketua penerangan juga sudah mendaftarkan diri dan juga memaklumkannya agar laman Facebook ini kita aplikasikan sebagai salah satu lagi medium penerangan yang efektif dan berkesan kita.


                Kita perlu bijak dan menfaatkan teknologi ICT ini untuk digunakan dalam perjuangan kita. Kita juga perlu memperbagaikan ‘senjata’ kita dalam berhadapan dengan arus media massa  seperti Televisyen,surat khabar .


                Tindakan lebih utama daripada hanya bercakap. Jadi sudahkah anda mendaftarkan diri dalam Laman Facebook. Jika belum sila layari laman facebook di http//:www.facebook.com.



    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    • Interested in contributing to Wikipedia? • Jump to: navigation, search

    Facebook is a social networking website launched on February 4, 2004. The website is owned and operated by Facebook, Inc., a private company. The free-access website allows users to join networks such as a school, place of employment, or geographic region to connect and interact with other people. Users can add friends and then post messages for these friends to see, and update their personal profile to notify friends about themselves. The website’s name refers to the paper facebooks depicting members of a campus community that some American colleges and preparatory schools give to incoming students, faculty, and staff as a way to get to know other people on campus.

    Mark Zuckerberg founded Facebook while still a student at Harvard University. Website membership was initially limited to Harvard students, but was expanded to other colleges in the Ivy League. It later expanded further to include any university student, then high school students, and, finally, to anyone aged 13 and over. Peter Thiel was the first person to fund the company, with an initial investment of US$500,000. Features of the website include a Wall for posting messages, Pokes for sending virtual “pokes”, and Photos for uploading digital photos. The website has more than 69 million active users worldwide.[4]

    Due to the website’s popularity, Facebook has met with some controversy related to privacy concerns, its founders’ political views, and censorship issues. It has been blocked in several countries including Syria, Burma, Bhutan, and Iran, because of the open nature of the website. Privacy has also been an issue of the website, and it has been compromised several times by separate parties.


    Mark Zuckerberg founded “The Facebook”, originally located at thefacebook.com, in February 2004 while attending Harvard University.[1] The company dropped The from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com in 2005.[5] Membership was initially restricted to students of Harvard College, but by the end of the first month, more than half of the undergraduate population at Harvard were registered on the service.[6] Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes soon joined Zuckerberg to help promote the website. Facebook later expanded to Stanford, Columbia, and Yale.[7] This expansion continued in April when it expanded to MIT, Boston University, Boston College, Northeastern University, and all Ivy League schools within two months.[7] At the end of the school year, Zuckerberg and Moskovitz moved to Palo Alto, California with Andrew McCollum, who had a summer internship at Electronic Arts.[7]

    Zuckerberg launched the high school iteration of Facebook on September 2, 2005, calling it “the next logical step”.[8] Initially, high school networks required an invitation to join.[9] Within 15 days, a Facebook account was the only requirement to join high school networks.[9] By the end of the year, more than 2,000 colleges and over 25,000 high schools throughout seven countries including the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom had networks on Facebook.[10][11] Facebook had expanded membership eligibility to employees of 10 preselected companies by April 26, 2006, including Amazon.com, Apple Inc., and Microsoft.[12] Facebook finally became open to everyone on September 11, 2006, with the only requirements being a valid email address and a minimum age of 13.[13][14]


    Facebook received its first investment of US$500,000 in June 2004 from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel in an angel round.[15] This was followed a year later by $12.8 million in venture capital from Accel Partners, and then $25 million more from Greylock Partners and Meritech Capital Partners.[15][16] It was discovered that during the 2005 fiscal year, Facebook had a net loss of $3.63 million.[17] Microsoft approached Facebook in September 2007, proposing an investment in return for a 5% stake in the company. Microsoft would pay an estimated $300–500 million for the share.[18] Microsoft announced on October 24, 2007 it had bought a 1.6% share of Facebook for $246 million.[19][20][21][22] On November 30, 2007, Hong Kong billionaire Li Ka-shing invested $60 million in Facebook.[23]

    BusinessWeek reported on March 28, 2006 that a potential acquisition of the website was under negotiation. Facebook reportedly declined an offer of $750 million, and it was rumored the asking price rose as high as $2 billion.[24] With the sale of social networking website MySpace to News Corp, rumors surfaced about the possible sale of Facebook to a larger media company.[25] Zuckerberg had already said he did not want to sell the company and denied rumors to the contrary.[26] In late September, serious talks between Facebook and Yahoo! took place concerning acquisition of the social network, with prices reaching as high as $1 billion.[27] Peter Thiel, a board member of Facebook, indicated Facebook’s internal valuation was around $8 billion based on their projected revenues of $1 billion by 2015, comparable to Viacom’s MTV brand and based on shared target demographic audience.[28] Other companies, including Google, expressed interest in buying a portion of Facebook, but an outright sale of Facebook was unlikely according to Zuckerberg, as he wanted to keep it independent.[29] Zuckerberg said, “We’re not really looking to sell the company. […] We’re not looking to IPO anytime soon. It’s just not the core focus of the company.”[10]


    A login form is shown, on the left, and a registration form, on the right, for users who are not members.

    Facebook users can choose to join one or more networks on the website, such as a school, place of employment, geographic region, or social group.[30] These networks help users connect with members of the same network. Users can also connect to friends, giving them access to their friends’ profiles.[31]

    The website is free to users, but generates revenue from advertising, including banner ads.[32] Users create profiles that often contain photos and lists of personal interests, exchange private or public messages, and join groups of friends.[33] The viewing of detailed profile data is restricted to users from the same network or confirmed friends.

    Microsoft is Facebook’s exclusive partner for serving banner advertising,[34] and as such Facebook only serves advertisements that exist in Microsoft’s advertisement inventory, which only contains advertisements that have been pre-approved by Microsoft and have an existing agreement established between Microsoft and the advertiser. When compared with other web companies, Facebook collects as much data from its visitors as Google and Microsoft, but considerably less than Yahoo!.[35] The data collected is used to show more relevant advertisements to website visitors.


    Main article: Facebook features

    The media often compares Facebook to MySpace, but one significant difference between the two websites is the level of customization.[36] MySpace allows users to decorate their profiles using HTML and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), while Facebook only allows plain text.[37] The lack of decoration has been said to make the site more appealing to job seekers. Users can network, and even announce to their friends that they are seeking employment. In April 2007, CareerBuilder introduced a Facebook application that allows job recruiters to search through profiles.[38]

    Several features from the original Facebook website still exist. They include the Wall, a space on every user’s profile page that allows friends to post messages for the user to see,[39] Pokes, which allows users to send a virtual “poke” to each other,[40] Photos, where users can upload albums and photos,[41] and Status, which allows users to inform their friends of their whereabouts and actions.[42] The Facebook Wall allows users to post messages on the profile of their friends.[43] A user’s Wall is visible to anyone who is able to see that user’s profile, which depends on their privacy settings. In July 2007, Facebook began allowing users to post attachments to the Wall, whereas the Wall was previously limited to textual content only.[39]

    Over time, Facebook has added several new features to its website. On September 6, 2006, a News Feed was announced, which appears on every user’s homepage and highlights information including profile changes, upcoming events, and birthdays related to the user’s friends.[44] Initially, the News Feed caused dissatisfaction among Facebook users: some complained that the News Feed was too cluttered and full of undesired information, while others were concerned that the News Feed made it too easy for other people to track down individual activities (like changes in relationship status, events, and conversations with other users).[45] In response to this dissatisfaction, Zuckerberg issued an apology for the site’s failure to include appropriate customizable privacy features.[46] Since then, users have been able to control what types of information are shared automatically with friends.[46] Users are now able to prevent friends from seeing updates about different types of activities, including profile changes, Wall posts, and newly added friends.[46]

    One of the most popular applications on Facebook is the Photos application, where users can upload albums and photos.[41] Facebook allows users to upload an unlimited number of photos, compared with other image hosting services such as Photobucket and Flickr, which apply limits to the number of photos that a user is allowed to upload. However, users are limited to 60 photos per album. Privacy settings can be set for individual albums, limiting the groups of users that can see an album. For example, the privacy of an album can be set so that only the user’s friends can see the album, while the privacy of another album can be set so that all Facebook users can see it. Another feature of the Photos applications is the ability to “tag“, or label users in a photo. For instance, if a photo contains a user’s friend, then the user can tag the friend in the photo. This sends a notification to the friend that they have been tagged, and provides them a link to see the photo.[47]

    Facebook Notes was introduced on August 22, 2006, a blogging feature with tagging, embedded images, and other features. It then began allowing the importation of blogs from Xanga, LiveJournal, Blogger, and other blogging services. This newly added feature also included the common blog feature of allowing readers to comment on other users’ entries.[13] During the week of April 7, 2008, Facebook began releasing a Chat feature to a limited number of networks.[48] This component is not an application; it is integrated directly into the user’s browser as the user browses the Facebook website.[49] The feature allows users to chat with their friends, much in the way instant messaging works.

    Facebook launched Gifts on February 8, 2007, which allowed users to send virtual gifts to their friends that appeared on the recipient’s profile. Gifts cost $1.00 each to purchase, and a personalized message can be attached to each gift.[50][51] On May 14, 2007, Facebook launched the Marketplace application, allowing users to post free classified ads on the website.[52] The Marketplace has been compared to Craigslist by CNET, which points out that the major difference between the two online services is that listings posted by a user on Facebook Marketplace are only seen by users that are in the same network as that user, whereas listings posted on Craigslist can be seen by anyone online.[53]


    Facebook launched the Facebook Platform on May 24, 2007, providing a framework for software developers to create applications that interact with core Facebook features.[54][55][55] A markup language was also introduced, called Facebook markup language, used to customize the “look and feel” of applications that developers created. This enabled Facebook itself to launch several new applications that integrated with the Facebook system.[54][55] These include the Gifts application, which allows users to send virtual gifts to each other, the Marketplace, allowing users to post free classified ads, Events, which gives users a method of informing their friends about upcoming events, and Video, an application that allows users to share homemade videos with one another.[56][57]

    Applications that have been created include chess and a game similar to Scrabble, which allow users to play games against their friends.[58][59] The games played are asynchronous, which saves a user’s move on the server, allowing the next move to be made any time in the future rather than immediately after the previous move.[60] Within a few months of launching the Facebook Platform, issues arose regarding “application spam“, which involves Facebook applications “spamming” users to request it be installed.[61] Application spam has been considered one of the possible causes to the drop in visitors to Facebook starting from the beginning of 2008, when the website’s growth had fallen from December 2007 to January 2008, its first drop since the website launched.[62]


    See also: Criticism of Facebook and Use of social network websites in investigations

    Facebook has been involved in a number of controversies. In October 2005, the University of New Mexico blocked access to Facebook from its campus computers and networks.[63] It cited a violation of the university’s Acceptable Use Policy for abusing computer resources as the reason, stating the website forces use of the university’s credentials for non-university business. They later unblocked Facebook after the website rectified the situation by displaying a notice on the login page stating that the credentials used on the website are separate from the ones used for their school accounts.[64] The Ontario government also blocked access to Facebook for its employees in May 2007, stating the website was “not directly related to the workplace” so they were “restricting access to it”.[65]

    A notable ancillary effect of social networking websites like Facebook is the ability for participants to mourn publicly for a deceased individual. On January 1, 2008, a memorial group on Facebook posted the identity of murdered Toronto teenager Stefanie Rengel, whose family had not yet given the Toronto Police Service their consent to release her name to the media.[66] While police and Facebook staff attempted to comply with the privacy regulations by deleting such posts, they noted it was difficult to effectively police the individual users who repeatedly republished the deleted information.[67]

    Due to the open nature of Facebook, several countries have banned access to it, including Syria, Burma, Bhutan, and Iran.[68][69] The Syrian government cited the ban was on the premise that the website promoted attacks on the authorities.[68][70] The Syrian government also feared Israeli infiltration of Syrian social networks on the website. Facebook was used as a tool to criticize the Syrian government by its citizens, and public criticism of the Syrian government is punishable by imprisonment.[68] In Iran, Facebook was banned because of fears of opposition movements organizing using the website.[69]


    Facebook announced Facebook Beacon on November 7, 2007, a marketing initiative that includes a system for websites to allow users to share chosen information about their activities on these websites with their Facebook friends.[71] With respect to privacy, Facebook states “no personally identifiable information is shared with an advertiser in creating a Social Ad,” and that “Facebook users will only see Social Ads to the extent their friends are sharing information with them.”[72] After Facebook was criticized for collecting more information on users for advertisers than was previously stated, Zuckerberg publicly apologized for the way Facebook launched the Beacon system, saying “The problem with our initial approach of making it an opt-out system instead of opt-in was that if someone forgot to decline to share something, Beacon still went ahead and shared it with their friends.”[73][74]


    Divya Narendra, Cameron Winklevoss, and Tyler Winklevoss, the owners of the social networking website HarvardConnection, changed its name to ConnectU in September 2004 and filed a lawsuit against Facebook, alleging Zuckerberg had illegally used source code intended for the website they asked him to build for them.[75][76] Facebook later requested the court case that ConnectU filed against Facebook be dismissed, citing ConnectU’s “broad brush allegations are unsupported by evidence”. The case was dismissed by a Boston district judge.[77] ConnectU then filed another lawsuit against Facebook on March 11, 2008, continuing the case.[78]


    There are unresolved concerns regarding the use of Facebook as a means of surveillance and data mining.[79] Two MIT students were able to download over 70,000 Facebook profiles from four schools (MIT, NYU, the University of Oklahoma, and Harvard) using an automated script, as part of a research project on Facebook privacy published on December 14, 2005.[80] The possibility of data mining remains open, as evidenced in May 2008, when the BBC technology programme “Click” demonstrated that personal details of Facebook users and their friends could be stolen by submitting malicious applications.[81]

    Privacy proponents have criticized the site’s privacy agreement, which states: “We may use information about you that we collect from other sources, including but not limited to newspapers and Internet sources such as blogs, instant messaging services, Facebook Platform developers and other users of Facebook, to supplement your profile.”[82] Another clause that received criticism concerned Facebook’s right to sell users’ data to private companies, stating: “We may share your information with third parties, including responsible companies with which we have a relationship.” This concern has been addressed by Facebook spokesman Chris Hughes who said: “Simply put, we have never provided our users’ information to third party companies, nor do we intend to.”[83]

    Concerns have also been raised regarding the difficulty of deleting user accounts from the website. Previously, Facebook only allowed users to “deactivate” their accounts so that their profile was no longer visible on the website. However, any information the user had entered into the website and on their profile remained publicly accessible on the website’s servers. This outraged many users who wished to remove their accounts permanently, citing reasons such as the inability to erase “embarrassing or overly-personal online profiles from their student days as they entered the job market, for fear employers would locate the profiles”.[84] Facebook changed its account deletion policies on February 29, 2008, allowing users to contact Facebook to request that their accounts be permanently deleted from the website.[85]


    Facebook has more than 69 million active users worldwide.[4] According to Alexa, the website’s ranking among all websites increased from 60th to 7th in terms of traffic, from September 2006 to September 2007.[86] Quantcast ranks the website 16th in terms of traffic,[87] and Compete.com ranks it 20th.[88] The website is the most popular for uploading photos, with 14 million uploaded daily.[4] On November 3, 2007, it was reported that there were seven thousand applications on Facebook, with another hundred created everyday.[89]

    Facebook is the most popular social networking site in several English-speaking countries, including Canada[90] and the United Kingdom.[91] The website has won numerous awards, including “Best Website” from NME[92] and the “People’s Voice Award” from the Webby Awards, both in 2008.[93] In a 2006 study conducted by Student Monitor, a New Jersey-based limited liability company specializing in research concerning the college student market, Facebook was named the second most popular thing among undergraduates, tied with beer and sex and only ranked lower than the iPod.[94]


    Mohd Ezli Mashut


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